Approximately 50% of all cases of infertility are associated with the male factor, but for the most part, male infertility is treatable.
Unlike women, male ability to fertilize remains until old age.
The causes of infertility are usually associated with other factors - the quality of sperm, the body's production of sperm and their unimpeded output to the outside. Therefore, the main treatment of infertility in men is based on improving the quality of sperm, which, for any reason not related to age, has decreased to a critical level.
What can cause male infertility?
Causes of infertility in men can be divided into two groups:
- congenital abnormalities;
- acquired diseases.
What diseases and abnormalities can cause impaired fertility (the ability to conceive) in men:
- parotitis or mumps;
- abnormal undescended testicles from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum;
- hormonal imbalance;
- genetic disorders;
- benign and malignant tumors of the reproductive organs;
- infectious processes;
- genetic disorders.
In addition to diseases, infertility is often caused by such negative factors as:
- stress and excessive exercise;
- adverse environmental background;
- radiation exposure;
- abuse of smoking and alcohol.
Since male infertility may be due to causes of different etiologies, then its treatment will be different. First of all, a complete diagnostic examination of the patient is required if the partner’s pregnancy does not occur longer than one year of regular sex life without using contraceptive methods.
Why is sperm quality deteriorating?
In normal, one ml of ejaculate contains about 20 million live sperm cells. However, under the influence of various factors, this number may decrease, or with a normal number of spermatozoa, their activity may decrease.
In general, sperm quality is affected by such qualities of sperm as:
- structure (morphology);
There are four main types of deterioration of sperm quality, up to the complete loss of fertility:
- oligospermia - is expressed by a decrease in the number of motile spermatozoa in the seminal fluid;
- asthenospermia - the mobility of a normal sperm count is significantly reduced;
- teratospermia - the number of sperm within the normal range, but their structure is broken;
- aspermia - the complete absence of male germ cells in seminal fluid.
Diagnosis of infertility in men
For effective treatment of male forms of infertility, it is very important to identify their causes in a timely manner.
In addition to the history and physical examination, the prerequisite is the delivery of semen for the study of the quality of sperm. There are two types of assessment of sperm - standard and deployed. The standard is the evaluation of sperm by macro- and microscopic criteria (color, viscosity, liquefaction, etc.). Deployed semen includes several stages. These include:
- a study for compliance with standards adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO);
- MAR test aimed at detecting autoimmune infertility;
- in-depth study of morphology by Kruger.
For an objective picture of the analysis for the delivery of semen it is necessary to prepare. For 5-7 days you need:
- exclude overheating (baths, saunas);
- exclude sexual contact and self-pleasure.
Additionally, studies such as:
- blood test for hormonal status;
- pelvic ultrasound;
- laboratory tests for the presence of venereal disease pathogens;
- immunological analysis, etc.
Male Infertility Treatment Methods
The main effective treatment of male infertility is divided into three areas:
- radical, surgical;
- alternative, using assisted reproductive techniques (ART)
In 85% of cases, it is possible to cope with male infertility only with the help of ART.
In the PERSONA international clinical center of reproduction, innovative methods of correction and treatment of male infertility are used, so that almost all our patients have the opportunity to become happy parents!